Who is Marcus Aurelius? The Stoic Emperor

Who is Marcus Aurelius? The Stoic Emperor

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Marcus Aurelius, often remembered as the symbol of Roman virtue and the epitome of Stoic wisdom, was the Emperor of Rome from 161 to 180 AD. His philosophical insights, penned during his tumultuous reign, are collected in the enduring work “Meditations,” a foundational text of Stoic philosophy. This article delves into the life, philosophy, and impact of the Stoic Emperor, unveiling the timeless wisdom he bestowed upon the world.


Born on April 26, 121 AD, in Rome, Marcus Aurelius belonged to a prominent Roman family. He was adopted by his uncle, Emperor Antoninus Pius, a move orchestrated by the then Emperor Hadrian, who saw in young Marcus the virtues of wisdom and leadership. Marcus Aurelius received a comprehensive education, focusing especially on philosophy and law, preparing him for his future role as the ruler of the Roman Empire.

His Reign:

Ascending to the throne in 161 AD, Marcus Aurelius' reign was marked by military conflicts, including the Parthian War and the Marcomannic Wars. Despite the external pressures, he remained a steadfast and wise ruler, committed to his philosophical beliefs and the well-being of his subjects. His approach to governance was deeply influenced by Stoic philosophy, emphasizing rationality, virtue, and the common good.

Stoic Philosophy:

Stoicism, founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC, is a philosophy centered around personal virtue and wisdom as the path to true happiness. It teaches the development of self-control, rationality, and virtue as means to achieve a tranquil and contented life, irrespective of external circumstances. Marcus Aurelius is considered one of the most prominent Stoic philosophers, along with Seneca and Epictetus.


Marcus Aurelius’s work, “Meditations,” written during his military campaigns, is a series of personal writings, reflections on Stoic philosophy, and guidance on ethical behavior. It is not a systematic study of Stoic philosophy but rather an aggregation of his spiritual exercises, thoughts, and ideas. “Meditations” is revered for its insight into the mind of a ruling emperor and its profound philosophical, ethical, and spiritual insights.

Read the summary we wrote on Meditations here.

Impact and Legacy:

The wisdom of Marcus Aurelius has transcended the confines of time and continues to enlighten and inspire individuals seeking purpose, resilience, and tranquility. His emphasis on individual responsibility, ethical conduct, and the pursuit of virtue has resonated with countless thinkers, leaders, and individuals across centuries. The teachings from “Meditations” are especially relevant in today’s fast-paced and stress-filled world, offering solace and guidance to those grappling with life’s challenges.

Contributions to Stoicism:

Marcus Aurelius contributed significantly to the evolution of Stoic philosophy. His reflections emphasize the transient nature of life, the importance of accepting what we cannot change, and the value of living in accordance with nature. He promoted the cultivation of virtues such as wisdom, justice, courage, and temperance and urged the understanding and acceptance of life’s natural order and the pursuit of harmony within it.

Top 5 Stoic Quotes by Marcus Aurelius:

Very little is needed to make a happy life; it is all within yourself, in your way of thinking.

Marcus reflects on the Stoic pursuit of inner peace and virtue, emphasizing the power of personal perspective.

Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.

Aurelius highlights the significance of personal judgment and the subjective nature of our perceptions.

Accept the things to which fate binds you, and love the people with whom fate brings you together, but do so with all your heart.

Marcus encourages embracing acceptance and fully living in the present moment, emphasizing love and connection.

You have power over your mind - not outside events. Realize this, and you will find strength.

Aurelius speaks to the essence of Stoic resilience, focusing on self-empowerment and mental fortitude amidst external circumstances.

Dwell on the beauty of life. Watch the stars, and see yourself running with them.

Marcus inspires a sense of harmony with the universe, urging a focus on life's beauty and our place within the cosmos.

You can read more quotes from Marcus Aurelius here and quotes from Meditations here.


Marcus Aurelius, the Stoic Emperor, remains an enduring symbol of wisdom, virtue, and resilience. His life and works exemplify the principles of Stoic philosophy, offering timeless insights into leading a life of purpose, dignity, and tranquility. The philosophical treasures encapsulated in “Meditations” continue to inspire and guide those seeking solace and meaning in a chaotic world, making the wisdom of this Stoic Emperor as relevant today as it was over two millennia ago.

To delve deeper into the life and wisdom of Marcus Aurelius and to explore the practical applications of Stoic philosophy in your life, consider reading “Meditations” and reflecting on its teachings or explore more about Stoicism and its eminent philosophers.

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